What is synovial joint?
A synovial joint is the type of joint found between bones that move against each other, such as the joints of the limbs
Synovial joint are most evolved and therefore most mobile type of joints.
Classification of synovial joint and their movements
Types of joint.
| Plane or|
| Biaxial joint ||Multiaxial joint|
| 1. Hinge joint |
| 1. Condylar joint|
2. Ellipsoid joint
|1. Saddle joint||2. Ball and socket joint|
| flexion and extension ||Flexion extension limited rotation|| flexion. Extension ,abduction ,adduction and conjunct rotation|
|Rotation only||flexion ,extension, abduction, adduction and circumduction.|| All movement in this joint|
Functions of synovial joint -
1. The articular surfaces are covered with hyaline cartilage, like clavicle and mandible .
2. Articular cartilage is Avascular , non - nervous and elastic. Lubricated with synovial fluid, the cartilage provides slippery surfaces for free movement like 'ice on ice'.
3. The surface of the cartilage shows fine undulations filled with synovial fluid .
synovial joint examples with classification
1. Plane synovial joint- articular surfaces are more or less flat . they permit gliding movement in various directions.
For example - intercarpal joint
2. Hinge joints -Articular surfaces are pulley- shaped. There are strong collateral ligaments.movement are permitted in one plane around a transverse axis
For example - elbow joint
. Ankle joint
3. Pivot joint- articular surfaces comprise a central bony pivot surrounded by an osteoligamentous ring. Movement are permitted in one plane around a vertical axis
For example - superior and inferior . radioulnar joint.
Median atlantoaxial joint .
4. Condylar joint - articular surfaces include two distinct condyles fitting into reciprocally concave female surfaces.
These joints permit movement mainly in one plane around a transverse axis ,but partially in another plane around a vertical axis.
For example- knee joint
right and left jaw joint
5. Ellipsoid joint - articular surfaces include an oval ,convex , male surface fitting into an ellipsoid , concave female surface. Free movement are permitted around both the axes, flexion and extension around the transverse axis.
For example - Atlanto-occipital joints
. wrist joint
6. Saddle joints - articular surfaces are reciprocally concave convex. Movement are similar to those permitted by an ellipsoid joint , with addition of some rotation around a third axis which , however cannot occur independently.
For example - sternoclavicular joint
7. Ball and socket joints - articular surfaces include a globular head fitting into a cup- shaped socket .Movement occur around an indefinite number of axes which have one common centre .
For example - shoulder joint
. hip joint